Does the Issued and Outstanding Matter When Selling Restricted Stock Under Rule 144?

Yes, it does.  While drafting a restricted stock opinion using Rule 144, an experienced securities attorney like Matt Stout will review the Issuer’s profile at OTCMarkets.com.   The Company Info tab provides useful information such as the total issued and outstanding shares of common stock, which is essential information for Rule 144.

Under SEC Rule 144, a Shareholder must not own greater than ten (10%) percent of the Company’s issued and outstanding shares any class of stock.  Usually this will refer to common stock–both free trading and restricted stock. This applies to any Issuer, whether it is an OTC Bulletin Board (OTCBB), or an OTC Markets OTCQX, OTCQB, Pink Sheet or even an Issuer listed on a national exchange like NASDAQ or NYSE MKT.

If the Issuer is up to date in its OTC Markets filings, the issued and outstanding shares will be current, as well.   Depending on how recently the Issuer’s Transfer Agent updated its shareholder list, the information may be just a few days old, or it may date to the previous quarter or fiscal year end.

This information is cited in the Rule 144 opinion by securities lawyers since it can help demonstrate that a Shareholder is not an insider or “Affiliate” by virtue of owning more than 10% of the Issuer’s voting stock. If the Shareholder is classified as an Affiliate, there are trading volume limitations on the sale of Affiliate stock.

Shareholder with questions on clearing and selling restricted stock under Rule 144 can contact securities lawyer Matheau J. W. Stout, Esq. at (410) 429-7076 or mstout@otclawyers.com.

What are Control Securities under Rule 144?

Under SEC Rule 144, Control Securities include restricted stock held by an Affiliate of the Issuer. An Affiliate is a person, such as an executive officer, a member of the company’s board of directors or large shareholder, owning greater than 10%.   These positions imply that the Affiliate is in a position of control with the issuer, and thus Affiliates are also sometimes called “Control Persons” when securities lawyers are analyzing restricted stock.

Control Person means that the Affiliate has the power to direct the management and policies of the Issuer.  This power can be derived through the ownership of 10% or more of the Issuer’s voting securities, by some contract or agreement with the Issuer, or otherwise.

When a Shareholder in an OTC Bulletin Board or OTC Markets Issuer purchases stock from a Control Person or Affiliate, they receive restricted stock.

What are the Trading Volume Restrictions for Affiliates Under Rule 144?

Affiliate Trading Volume Formula According to the SEC

If now, or within the past ninety days, you have been an Officer, Director, Control Person, or if you beneficially own more than Ten Percent of an Issuer, you are an Affiliate according to the SEC.  

Affiliates of OTC Bulletin Board and Pink Sheet Issuers

If you are an Affiliate of an Issuer trading on the OTCMarkets, OTC Bulletin Board or Pink Sheets, the number of equity securities you are allowed to sell during any three-month period cannot exceed the greater of 1% of the outstanding shares of the same class being sold. You must file a Notice of Sale on Form 144 with the SEC for each sale.  An experienced securities attorney can quickly walk you through this process.

Affiliates of Issuers Listed on a Stock Exchange Have Another Option

If you happen to be an Affiliate of an Issuer listed on a stock exchange, such as NYSE or NASDAQ you could sell up to the greater of 1% or the average reported weekly trading volume during the four weeks prior to the filing of Form 144. 

However, Over-the-counter stocks, including those quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board and the Pink Sheets, can only be sold using the 1% measurement. 

Securities Lawyers Opinion Letters

Rule 144 Letters Written By Securities Counsel

Perhaps the most common type of securities attorney opinion letter for the sale of restricted stock is the Rule 144 opinion letter.  A 144 opinion is written by a securities attorney after careful research of not only the issuing company, but also the current Shareholder and all predecessor holders of the stock.

Rule 144 Exceptions to SEC Registration of Restricted Stock

Rule 144 deals with exceptions to registered securities and it is basically a safe harbor, or series of opportunities for Shareholders to sell restricted stock without SEC registration of the securities.  Several different rules exist for how long an investor must own or hold the stock, and a lot depends on whether or not the Shareholder is or was an Affiliate of the issuing company.

What is an Affiliate According to Rule 144?

An Affiliate is basically an “insider” and Rule 144 has many different criteria for deciding if one is an Affiliate.  However, in a broad sense Affiliates include officers, directors, founders and their immediate family members living in the same household because they are all presumed to have control over the company and thus the stock.  Another name for an Affiliate is a “control person.”